Children’s Urological Conditions

Text or call: (702) 728-5686

Children are not just small adults.  They may not be able to say what is bothering them, answer medical questions, or be patient and cooperative during a medical examination.  Dr. Hwang is specially trained to examine and treat children in a way that makes them relaxed and cooperative.  We try to create a comfortable and nonthreatening environment for your child. We arrange and decorate our office with children in mind. We have toys, music, and reading materials for children.

If your pediatrician suggests that your child see Dr. Hwang, a board-certified pediatric urologist, you can be assured that he has the expertise and experience in treating children’s genital and urinary tract disorders.

We encourage the parents to understand their child’s urologic conditions and take part in their treatment planning. Patients and their parents are encouraged to be an active partner in their treatment by exploring the information available on this site and discussing it with their physician.

Prenatal consultation

Pre- and Post- operative Care Instructions

Office Procedures

We perform certain procedures in the office when appropriate.  The advantages of being able to do these procedures in the office include the avoidance of general anesthesia for the child, less lost time from work for parents, and significant cost savings for the family.

Please understand that the procedure may not be done on the same day of the office visit as the child may need some preparation at home.

Surgical Procedures done in a surgical facility

Most surgical procedures in children are performed under general anesthesia at an appropriate age when the child can safely tolerate and easily recover from the anesthesia.  In this setting, the child will not experience any discomfort during the procedure, as any potentially painful procedure, including insertion of the IV, are only done after the child has gone to sleep with medication given through a mask.  When appropriate, the child will be given a regional anesthetic block to keep the surgical area from hurting for another 6 to 8 hours.

Commonly, these are done on an outpatient basis, which means the child goes home the same day of surgery.  More complicated cases, such as reconstructive surgeries on the ureter and bladder, typically need 1-2 nights of recovery and observation in the hospital.

If your child is having surgery under general anesthesia, it is imperative that pre-operative instructions are followed carefully.  If you have any questions regarding such instructions, please do not hesitate to call our office.

The following is a partial list of some of the more common pediatric urologic surgeries performed by Dr. Hwang:

Genital surgeries

  • Circumcision, circumcision revision, excision of circumcision scars, repair of concealed penis, correction of abnormal penile angulation such as penile torsion and/or curvature
  • Hypospadias repair, meatoplasty, urethroplasty
  • Orchiopexy, hydrocelectomy, varicocelectomy

Urinary tract surgeries

  • Ureteral reimplantation (single or double ureter, tapering, etc.)
  • Ureterocele excision
  • Pyeloplasty
  • Endoscopic surgeries (cystoscopy, urethral calibration, ablation of posterior urethral valves, incision of ureteroceles, extraction of urinary stones, laser treatment of urinary tract stones, etc.)

Anatomy and Physiology:

Kidney          Ureter          Bladder          Urethra          Testicle          Penis          Foreskin

Common Urological Conditions in Children


  • Urinary tract infection    (kidshealth)
  • Blood in the urine    (UpToDate)    (NKF)
  • Enuresis — bedwetting    (kidshealth)      (UpToDate)
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Urinary frequency and/or urgency
  • Spina bifida and other causes of neurogenic bladder

Kidney, Ureter, Bladder, and Urethra

  • Hydronephrosis — urine distending the kidney (NIDDK)
  • Vesicoureteral reflux (abnormal backflow of urine to the kidney from bladder) (
  • Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO)     (eMedicine)
  • Ureterocele     (wiki)
  • Obstructed Megaureter (UVJ obstruction)
  • Posterior Urethral Valves     (wiki) (eMedicine)
  • Ectopic, crossed-fused, or horse-shoe kidney
  • Multi Cystic Dysplastic Kidney (MCKD)
  • Duplication Abnormalities (double kidney or ureter)     (wiki)
  • Bladder Exstrophy

Groin and Genital area

The information provided by the external websites is the property and responsibility of the respective websites, without input or endorsement from Dr. Hwang.  The websites may contain medical information, illustrations, or photographs that are not suitable for young children.  Parental discretion is advised.

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